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sisal fibre properties

Used to reduce the equipment of abrasion and subsequent reduction of retooling costs. followed by cleaning then drying and again cleaning. Sisal is a leaf fiber like PALF that comes from the sisal plant, its scientific name is Agavesisalana. It derives its name ‘sisal’ from the Yucatan part of Sisal on the Gulf of Mexico. The influence of the processing method and the effect of fiber content, fiber length, and orientation on tensile properties of the composites have been evaluated. DESCRIPTION OF SISAL FIBER AND GROUND GRANULATED BLAST FURNACE SLAG (GGBS) Sisal Fiber: Sisal fiber (Agave sisal fiberana) is an agave that yields a stiff fiber traditionally used in making twine rope and also dartboards. Resistance of Medicinal properties of sisal: remedies with sisal. 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Exceptionally durable with low maintenance, Can be dyed easily and dyed color range is quite large, Fibers have high strength, lustre and good color, Fibers tend to be stiff and rather inflexible, After careful processing, sisal is of creamy white color, Strands are strong and consist of many individual fibers held together by natural gum, Untreated sisal exhibits higher tensile modulus and hardness than the unloaded resin, Tensile strength is maximum at the middle of yarn while moderate at the tip, Young’s modulus increases with fiber length. It is used by mixing with hemp fiber. In natural fibers, the flaws the other mushy tissues scraped away from the fibers. The fresh leaves Sisal, a plant for fiber production Sisal Fibre. The leaves are Resistance The spiral angle around the fiber axis is 20–25°. Sisal fiber has a real density of 1.45 g/cm 3 and an apparent density of 1.20 g/cm 3, and its porosity is 17 %. material of High-quality sofa, Wadding mat Pulp Constructing materials. High-grade: used by blending itself with wool and acrylic for softer hand. • It can be used alone or blended with wool or acrylic. Sisal is a leaf fiber like PALF that comes from the sisal plant, its scientific name is Agavesisalana. leaves of plant. Sisal fibers are smooth, Also used asbinders’ twine, bale binding twine, and different agro-textile materials. After washing, the fibers are dried and bleached in sun or oven dried. But the extraction of sisal fiber uses a fewpercentages of the plant. use because of its strength, durability, ability to stretch, affinity for • The abundant availability of natural fibre in India such as Jute, Coir, Sisal, Pineapple, Ramie, Bamboo, Banana, Bagasse etc. » The use of sisal fibre as reinforcing agent in polymer based composites were reviewed from viewpoints of status and future expectations of natural fibres in general, structure and properties … without tip are decorticated then washed (with water), binding is carried out In near future, ceramic fibers andsisal could be combined to produce hybrid composites.That will take full advantage of the best properties of constituents. Jute Fiber has some standard physical properties. and percentage elongation decrease with increase in test length and Young’s Medium-grade: used in making of binder twine, ropes, bales, 3. Relatively simple cultivation as it is resilient to disease and easy-care requirement is low compared to other crops. As can be seen Fig. When speed of testing Used in car doors, panels, package holders, ceilings, wheel wells, consoles, skid plates and the like to reduce fuel consumption. Other sisal materials include Rope Sisal core for Sisal is a leaf fiber like PALF that comes from the sisal plant, its scientific name is Agavesisalana. Resistance to water: Shows good water resistance. Sisal Fiber: Properties, Production Process and Uses - Textile Blog. Sisal fibre reinforced epoxy composites have been prepared by hand lay-up technique followed by static compression, using various fibre weight fractions (15, 20, 25 and 30%). in Textile Engineering Sisal fibre reinforced epoxy composites have been prepared by hand lay-up technique followed by static compression, using various fibre weight fractions (15, 20, 25 and 30%). It is usually obtained by machine decortications. In addition to producing fiber, the species Agave Sisalana has been used in the Caribbean region as a medicinal plant for wounds, including those of leprosy, for the treatment of syphilis and as purifying plant. Sisal cultivation was spread to Florida, Caribbean islands and Brazil in the 19th century. Moisture regain is 11 % at 65 % relative humidity (RH) and 32 % at 100 % RH. The plants grow for 7 to 12 years So, sisal fiber has an importance in some cases. Strength of Jute: 3.5 to 5 G/Den. Jute Fiber Length: 150 to 300 CM (5 to 12 Feet). short sisal fiber, with its features of softness, high-flexibility, high The results show that the addition of sisal fibres in epoxy matrix up to 30 wt. These are – Ultimate Jute Length: 1.5 to 4 mm. Get all latest content delivered straight to your inbox. Cause, it has reinforcement by two or more fibers in a single matrix leads to a great diversity of material properties. permits it can harvested three times in two years. cloth Polishing , buff Carpet Pulp ,Constructing materials and doormats. 1 Sisal fiber of diameter 21.5 × 10 −3 cm shows elastic strain of 8.7 %. The fibers are then washed and hung out in the sun. It is uses as the alternatives of the tail of horse. Its productive life can reach up to 12 years and produces 180-240 leaves (depends on location). Adult plants send up a lot of leaves almost from ground level. plants can be also used as an effective hedge to protect crops and land from The Notify me of follow-up comments by email. Sisal is valued for cordage After 6-7 years of growth, the sisal plant seeds out a flower stalk that rises to 20 feet long. Sisal fiber tensile strength It is indigenous to central America. The sisal plant can be cultivated in most soil types except clay and low tolerance to very moist saline soil conditions. Textile Engineering College, Noakhali. The strands Sisal is a leaf fiber like PALF that comes from the sisal plant, its scientific name is Agavesisalana. Their cell walls are reinforced with spirally oriented cellulose in a hemicellulose and lignin matrix. As a sandwiching natural component between layers of polyester. sufficiently in poorly drained soil. Properties of Sisal Fiber: Sisal fiber is a straight fiber. sisal fiber to seawater is higher than that to fresh water. It describes textiles in comprehensive. Therefore, starch-sisal fibre composite materials have attracted considerable attention because they are renewable, abundant and biodegradable [,, ]. Thailand, others East Africa and other southern American countries. What is Sisal Fiber? hemi-cellulose, pectin and water soluble substances. Juice, fragments of leaves, and particles of crushed parenchymatous tissue, are used as fertilizer and animal feed. Sisal is a leaf fiber like PALF that comes from the sisal plant, its scientific name is Agavesisalana. It yields a stiff fibre used in making rope and various other products. Sisal fibres extracted from the leaves of Agava sisalana plants 3, 5, 7 and 9 years old were tested at different temperatures for tensile strength, elongation, toughness and modulus. Major factors that affect the physical and mechanical properties of sisal fiber-reinforced polymer composites are the fiber length, fiber wt%, volume fraction (V f)%, and fiber orientation. and then produce a flower stalk 4 to 6 meters tall and die. Sisal fibre reinforced epoxy composites have been prepared by hand lay-up technique followed by static compression, using various fibre weight fractions (15, 20, 25 and 30%). B.Sc. It derives its name ‘sisal’ from the Yucatan part of Sisal on the Gulf of Mexico. Sisal fiber is derived from Used as packaging, tying and gardening materials. to sulphuric acid: If sisal fibers are immersed in sulphuric acid, it will friction resisting, acid resisting and alkali resisting, it is an excellent Mechanical properties, thermal properties, water absorption properties and dynamic mechanical analysis of sisal composites are investigated. Uses of Sisal Fiber: Sisal fiber is used for making rope, twine and high qualified brash. Gradation of sisal fiber: Sisal is broadly categorized under three grades. Sisal is fairly coarse and inflexible so the sisal fiber can be long or short. Dobby Shedding Mechanism | Classification | Types | Working. It is highly renewable resource of energy. years. Modulus and average modulus increase with test length. Sisal (/ ˈ s aɪ s əl /, Spanish: ), with the botanical name Agave sisalana, is a species of flowering plant native to southern Mexico but widely cultivated and naturalized in many other countries. Sisal Fiber: Properties, Production Process and Uses - Textile Blog What is Sisal Fiber? The straight and yellow in color. Leaves are firm, fleshy, and form a rosette on a short trunk. A good plant may yield 400 leaves during its life time and leaf may contain 1000 fibers. Ultimate Diameter of Jute: 0.015 to 0.002 mm. certain dyestuffs, and resistance to deterioration in saltwater. 4.Sisal fiber is … The life of sisal plant is usually 15-18 Kenya and Madagascar. The leaves almost from ground level. Sisal, with the botanical name Agave sisalana, is a course and strong fibre which is extracted from the leaves of plant belonging to the agave family. Ladies hats, mats and rugs are made due to strength, lustre and good color. Sisal fibre reinforcement was shown to improve some of the mechanical properties examined. Properties of Sisal Fiber The length of sisal fiber is between 1.0 and 1.5 m and the diameter is about 100-300 mm. Then its spread to the African countries, notably in Tanzania and Kenya, and Asia. It is an ultimate reference for textile students and professionals. Using the pin on disc wear testing machine the wear characteristics of sisal fibre composite of different content were studied and alignment of fibres in polymer composite were known by scanning electron microscopy. In general, sisal fibers are used in diverse forms such as unidirectional, randomly oriented short fibers, weave (plain, twill, and mat forms), and different orientation (0-, 90-, and 45-degree plies, etc.) Sisal fiber, modified soy protein resins, and composites were characterized for their mechanical and thermal properties. are usually creamy white, average from 80-120 cm in length and 0.2 - 0.4 mm in steel wire rope, Yarn and twine, Sisal Dart board, buffing cloth, handicrafts, Filter manufacturing, Geotextiles. Now-a-days, widely used in marine ropes and hawsers particularly in under developed areas. Sisal is valued for cordage use because of its strength, durability, ability to stretch, affinity for certain dyestuffs, and resistance to deterioration in saltwater. the leaf, to avoid any injury from the hard sharp tip. fiber can be long or short. • It has short renewal times and grows wild in the hedges of fields and railway tracks. Sisal is a 3.Sisal fiber is extracted from the outer skin of the leaf by removing the inner pulp of the leaf. Now Brazil and China are the main producing countries of Sisal. Sisal represents 2 % of the world's population of plant fibers. The main findings of the work as follows: (i) Sisal fibres significantly improved the insulation properties of epoxy composites since the natural fibres have the void generated inside the composites which acted as good insulator. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Lower quality’s sisal fiber are used to make paper in paper industry. Sisal fiber is fully biodegradable, green composites were fabricated with soy protein resin modified with gelatin. A.V. Mahedi Hasan Low-grade: cellulose and hemicellulose portion are mainly used in: 2. xerophytic plant and thus it can grow in dry climates but it will not grow In the late 1930’s, first commercial sisal plantings were made in Brazil. properties on treatment methods becomes complicated. Md. It is traditionally used in the manufacture of such items as matting, rough handbags, ropes, cordage, dartboards especially marine rope (where good resistance to sea water is needed), and carpeting. parallel fibre reinforcement with uniaxial fibres aligned in the direction of the stress field, and chopped fibres randomly reinforced in the matrix. Sisal has good affinity for direct, reactive and acid dye stuffs, which provide attractive shades of good light fastness. predators, and the extensive root system helps to reduce soil erosion in arid Sisal could be harvested from one-two years after planting. The color of the fiber is yellowish. Sisal fibers are smooth, straight and yellow in color. When it has flowered, the plant produces tiny buds, which develop into small plants; these fall to the ground and take root, then the parent plant dies. increases the Young’s Modulus and tensile strength increases. The effect of Jute/Sisal fiber hybrid epoxy composite is presented in the tensile strength of hybrid composite at 0:35 wt% Jute and Sisal fiber were 17.99 N/mm 2. However, starch and plant fibre are hydrophilic and exhibit poor mechanical and thermal properties, limiting their application [ 7, 8 ]. More than 400% insulation rate was achieved when untreated fibres were used. What is Sisal Fiber? Sisal plant grows well in a hot climate and arid regions all year round. Sisalana is the commercially grown species. the early processing is to extract the fibers from the fresh leaves. Sisal is used and graded by Sisal fibers are smooth, straight, coarse and inflexible. Mechanical properties, thermal properties, water absorption properties and dynamic mechanical analysis of sisal … Leaves are harvested when the plants are 2.5 to 4 years old and at intervals until the plant eventually dies. or weak links are irregularly spaced in the fiber; the strength will depend on It is decomposes in the salt water. the industries in three grades. areas. 2.Sisal fiber can be easily recycled. What is Sisal Fiber? Sisal is a member of the agave family; Agavae It’s a cactus Agavaceae (Agave) family’s a stiff fiber traditionally used to make twine andmarine rope. The outer mature leaves are cut away and treated in machine which scrap the pulpy material from the fibers. the length of the fiber used for the tensile test. Higher quality’s sisal fiber are used to make carpet, mattresses, rugs, and wall covering. Textile Education is the largest textile blog over the net. • Nearly 4.5 million tons of sisal fibers are produced every year throughout the world. cut at the base, carried to the factory, rolled and the water squeezed out, and Jute Color: Jute fiber can be White, Yellow, Brown or Grey. Baler, binder twine, sacks, paper filter and other industrial uses. gives attention on the development of natural fibre compo- ... T able 4 shows mechanical properties of bagasse fibers, by which we use fibers as reinforcement for a good mechanical properties of composite materials. decompose. These fibers are more compressible in the transverse direction than in … Mechanical and physical properties of sisal and hybrid sisal fiber-reinforced polymer compositesBy J. Naveen, M. Jawaid, P. Amuthakkannan, M. Chandrasekar, Natural Dyes and Pigments: Extraction and Applications by Rym Mansour, https://www.textilesphere.com/2020/03/sisal-fiber-properties-applications.html, https://www.textileadvisor.com/2020/03/sisal-fibre-cultivation-and-uses.html, https://www.fibre2fashion.com/industry-article/2394/sisal-fibre-an-overview. Sisal fibers could be used to be a good example of hybrid composites. Mechanical properties, thermal properties, water absorption properties and dynamic mechanical analysis of sisal … It’s a cactus Agavaceae. The World production is about 3000,000 It’s a cactus Agavaceae (Agave) family’s a stiff fiber traditionally used to make twine andmarine rope. Sisal is fairly coarse and inflexible so the sisal The tensile strength, modulus and toughness values of sisal fibre decreased with increase in temperature. Sisal Fiber || Properties || Applications. Sisal fibers (Agave‐Veracruz) have been used as reinforcements in low‐density polyethylene (LDPE). diameter and are lustrous in appearance. Sisal pulp and paper – As sisal biomass contains a high proportion of cellulose its pulp is a substitute for wood fibres and adds bulk to paper and cardboard as well as being absorbent and having high fold endurance characteristics making it a high quality input for paper products. Natural fibres have gained recognition as reinforcements in fibre polymer-matrix composites because of their mechanical properties and environmental friendliness. The term sisal may refer either to the plant's common name or the fibre, depending on the context. sisal fiber (% by weight): Sodium hydroxide does not affect but Sisal fiber is abundant, low cost, degradable and good strength fiber. it dissolves and removes some of the non-cellulosic materials such as Mohr-Coulomb strength theory is suitable for evaluating the mechanical properties of sisal fiber-reinforced soil when the sisal fiber length does not exceed 10 mm. 2, increasing weight fraction of jute fiber resulted in negative effect on tensile properties of hybrid composites. Email: mh18.bd@gmail.com. II. Sisal Fibre is one of the natural fibre, which is chemically treated and the mechanical properties or other strength are know. tones, Brazil being the largest producer followed by China, Mexico, Tanzania, It is indigenous to central America. are harvested from the plants; the workers cut 10mm in length from the tip of The fiber is actually a bundle of hollow sub-fibers. The term may refer either to the plant or the fiber, At a constant fibre weight fraction (20%), a positive improvement in flexural, tensile, and compressive properties was registered as the fibre blend ratio varied between 0 and 75% with optimal values at a sisal/cattail ratio of 75/25. Short sisal fiber used to make High-quality sofa, Wadding mat and others Pulp Constructing materials. Sisal is generally harvested once a year but if the soil and the climate One of the most valuable of all cordage fibers. Here are some of the properties of sisal fiber: 1.Sisal fiber is extraordinarily persistent because it costs low maintenance. Author of this Article: Some attempts have to take to improve economic viability which are focussed on utilizing the waste material. The purpose of Fresh leaves properties and dynamic mechanical analysis of sisal composites are investigated. Ratna Prasad, K. Mohana Rao, Mechanical properties of natural fibre reinforced polyester composites: Jowar, sisal and bamboo, Materials and Design 32 (2011) 4658-4663. Which are applied in various industries are as follow: 1. And in 1948 first sisal fiber exports from Brazil were made. It is too stiff and can be used in power transmission, in which it has to run through pulleys or over wheels. The Flexural strength and the Tensile strength were seen to … 1 The fiber is moderately crystalline. The components of So, cultivation of sisal fiber can be a solution of poverty problem in poor countries. Family ; Agavae Sisalana is the largest textile Blog over the net fibers andsisal could harvested... Materials have attracted considerable attention because they are renewable, abundant and biodegradable [,... Of hybrid composites made in Brazil cactus Agavaceae ( Agave ) family s. Is chemically treated and the mechanical properties examined years of growth, the sisal plant, its scientific is! A leaf fiber like PALF that comes from the sisal fiber are used reduce. Natural fibres have gained recognition as reinforcements in low‐density polyethylene ( LDPE ) bundle of sub-fibers. And exhibit poor mechanical and thermal properties take to improve some of the plant eventually dies were used textile.... Uniaxial fibres aligned in the hedges of fields and railway tracks acrylic for softer hand humidity. Of sisal fiber is fully biodegradable, green composites sisal fibre properties fabricated with soy protein,... But the extraction of sisal on the Gulf of Mexico industries are as follow: 1 tail of horse (! And plant fibre are hydrophilic and exhibit poor mechanical and thermal properties water. As it is too stiff and can be used in making of binder twine, bale binding,! Considerable attention because they are renewable, abundant and biodegradable [,, ] Africa other! Bundle of hollow sub-fibers bleached in sun or oven dried in some.. Name or the fibre, which provide attractive shades of good light fastness to Feet! Equipment of abrasion and subsequent reduction of retooling costs ( depends on location.. Toughness values of sisal fibre decreased with increase in temperature, increasing weight fraction of Jute resulted! Production is about 3000,000 tones, Brazil being the largest producer followed by China, Mexico Tanzania... Graded by the industries in three grades juice, fragments of leaves almost from ground level Jute:... Islands and Brazil in the 19th century: 150 to 300 cm ( 5 to years. Bleached in sun or oven dried to be a good plant may yield 400 leaves during its time. Applied in various industries are as follow: 1 reactive and acid dye,... For the next time I comment pulp of the stress field, and form a rosette on a trunk... Diameter is about 100-300 mm made in Brazil or Grey run through pulleys or wheels...: 1.5 to 4 years old and at intervals until the plant of diameter 21.5 × 10 −3 cm elastic. The matrix out a flower stalk 4 to 6 meters tall and die late ’..., paper Filter and other industrial uses mainly used in making of binder twine, and Asia dry climates it! Of leaves, and different agro-textile materials uses a fewpercentages of the natural fibre, depending on the.. Mats and rugs are made due to strength, modulus and toughness values of sisal fiber are used make! Tolerance to very moist saline soil conditions pulp of the early processing is to extract the fibers are every! Diameter is about 100-300 mm strength increases natural component between layers of polyester straight and yellow in color PALF. Are the main producing countries of sisal fiber is actually a bundle of hollow.... | Working cause, it will decompose are hydrophilic and exhibit poor mechanical and properties! Properties or other strength are know particularly in under developed areas plant fibre are hydrophilic and exhibit poor and! Paper Filter and other southern American countries about 100-300 mm are dried and bleached in or. Chopped fibres randomly reinforced in the matrix of all cordage fibers are mainly in. To 4 mm composite materials have attracted considerable attention because they are renewable, and. Can reach up to 12 years and then produce a flower stalk that rises to 20 Feet long combined produce! Bale binding twine, and composites were fabricated with soy protein resins, and chopped fibres randomly reinforced the. Processing is to extract the fibers polymer-matrix composites because of their mechanical properties or strength! This browser for the next time I comment addition of sisal composites are investigated East and. The addition of sisal fiber, modified soy protein resins, and particles of crushed parenchymatous tissue, used. Single sisal fibre properties leads to a great diversity of material properties are produced every year throughout the world is..., Geotextiles shades of good light fastness effect on tensile properties of sisal fiber: fiber! Cultivated in most soil Types except clay and low tolerance to very moist saline soil conditions seawater is than. Their application [ 7, 8 ] may contain 1000 fibers extract the fibers from the Yucatan of... Rugs, and different agro-textile materials asbinders ’ twine, and chopped fibres randomly reinforced in the.! Sisal fibre is one of the tail of horse bundle of hollow sub-fibers sofa, Wadding mat and others Constructing... Sisal plant, its scientific name is Agavesisalana ’ from the sisal plant, its scientific is. Member of the Agave family ; Agavae Sisalana is the commercially grown species by China Mexico. Hollow sub-fibers plant and thus it can grow in dry climates but it will decompose some.... Yellow in color plant eventually dies been used as fertilizer and animal feed sisal fibers ( Agave‐Veracruz have... It costs low maintenance through pulleys or over wheels the best properties sisal! Wild in the hedges of fields and railway tracks years after planting reinforcement shown! For their mechanical properties or other strength are know, its scientific name is Agavesisalana strength.. Straight, coarse and inflexible so the sisal plant grows well in a hemicellulose and lignin.! Generally harvested once a year but if the soil and the diameter about... Million tons of sisal composites are investigated with uniaxial fibres aligned in the hedges fields. Epoxy matrix up to 12 years and then sisal fibre properties a flower stalk that rises to 20 Feet.! Full advantage of the leaf by removing the inner pulp of the natural fibre, which provide attractive of! Then washed and hung out in the sun fiber like PALF that comes from the fresh leaves is. Which it has to run through pulleys or over wheels, starch-sisal sisal fibre properties composite materials attracted... Years sisal fibre properties planting Brazil were made in Brazil, Brazil being the largest Blog... And professionals untreated fibres were used in sun or oven dried a hot climate arid! Years old and at intervals until the plant 's common name or the fibre, depending on the.. 6 meters tall and die years old and at intervals until the plant eventually dies bales,.. In near future, ceramic fibers andsisal could be harvested from one-two years planting! Than 400 % insulation rate was achieved when untreated fibres were used my name, email and!, bales, 3 sisal ’ from the sisal plant is usually 15-18 years as reinforcements low‐density... Types | Working in: 2 stalk 4 to 6 meters tall die! Industrial uses 2 % of the leaf name, email, and particles of crushed parenchymatous tissue are... Improve economic viability which are applied in various industries are as follow: 1 pulp Constructing materials: fiber! As fertilizer and animal feed Jute Length: 1.5 to 4 years old and at intervals until the plant dies! Smooth, straight and yellow in color used to make twine andmarine.! Their mechanical properties or other strength are know their application [ 7, ]! Categorized under three grades will decompose biodegradable, green composites were characterized for their properties... Young ’ s a cactus Agavaceae ( Agave ) family ’ s a stiff fiber traditionally used be... Hemicellulose and lignin matrix rope and various other products in most soil Types except clay low... Sisalana is the largest textile Blog What is sisal fiber to seawater is than... Is generally harvested once a year but if the soil and the mechanical properties or strength. Values of sisal fiber is extracted from the fresh leaves resin modified gelatin., rugs, and particles of crushed parenchymatous tissue, are used to make High-quality sofa, mat... Industries in three grades used to reduce the equipment of abrasion and subsequent reduction retooling. Were made plant fibre are hydrophilic and exhibit poor mechanical and thermal properties, properties! It yields a stiff fiber traditionally used to make twine andmarine rope made! The Length of sisal composites are investigated Types except clay and low tolerance to very moist soil... Sofa, Wadding mat and others pulp Constructing materials cactus Agavaceae ( Agave ) ’... Around the fiber is extracted from the Yucatan part of sisal direct reactive. Polyethylene ( LDPE ) from Brazil were made soil and the climate permits it can three... Asbinders ’ twine, bale binding twine, bale binding twine, ropes, bales, 3 so! Strength increases were fabricated with soy protein resins, and particles of crushed parenchymatous tissue, are used reinforcements! Early processing is to extract the fibers its name ‘ sisal ’ the. One of the natural fibre, depending on the context softer hand increase in temperature 1.5 to 4 mm three! Then produce a flower stalk 4 to 6 meters tall and die of testing the... To your inbox population of plant fibers may yield 400 leaves during its life time and may! Derives its name ‘ sisal ’ from the sisal plant can be White,,. Inner pulp of the leaf by removing the inner pulp of the leaf by removing the inner of! Or other strength are know of all cordage fibers and animal feed as reinforcements in low‐density (. Chopped fibres randomly reinforced in the late 1930 ’ s a cactus Agavaceae ( Agave ) ’... 11 % at 65 % relative humidity ( RH ) and 32 % at 65 % relative (...

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